History of electronic digital computers

History of electronic digital computers

At North Dakota Online you may find almost everything related to computers. We will be talking equally about hardware and software problems, about monitors and processors, etc. Today’s lesson is a so-called history lesson. It will be a glance to some older times, when everything wasn’t so perfect, although for some people; perfect time of modernization still did not come. Today’s article is about the history of electronic digital computers. History of electronic digital computers can be divided into six generations, depending on the stage of development.

500004289-03-01The first generation (1951-1958) is characterized by the use of electronic (vacuum) tubes as active elements and cable connections between the elements. These elements were great, spent much of current, delivering a large amount of heat. Computers were a great example. ENIAC was heavy 30 tons and consumed about 174 KWh.

The second generation (1959-1963) was characterized by transistors, which were built instead of electronic tubes. They were cheaper, faster, and smaller, consumed less electricity and developed less heat. The most famous computers of this generation were Philco Transac S- 2000 and IBM 1401. In addition to hardware improvements, new programming languages had emerged: Flow – Matic, from which arose later COBOL, FORTRAN, LISP, and ALGOL.

pic27Third Generation (1964-1970) is characterized by the application of integrated circuits. The introduction of integrated and LSI (Large Scale Integration), integrated circuits with a high degree of integration, enabled the production of chips with thousands of transistors. Low cost, high reliability, small size, low power consumption and speed of operations have improved the development of minicomputer. Magnetic tape was used for storage of data and programs. This generation was characterized by enhanced peripherals that were large enough to enable connection of multiple peripherals and connect multiple computers using the telephone line. For the management and control of computers, operating systems were developed, and for writing programs using higher programming languages like COBOL, FORTRAN, and ALGOL LISP. The most recognizable computers of this generation were IBM 360 and PDP – 1.

Fourth generation (1971-1987) was characterized by components made on the basis of semiconductor circuits using LSI (Large Scale Integrated) and VLSI (Verrz Large Scale Integration) of highly integrated circuits, which allowed the creation of a microprocessor which is the basis of today’s computers. Improved hardware features led to a reduction regarding size of computers, increasing the capacity of the main memory and peripherals which rendered in significantly faster data processing. Operating systems were easier to use multiple users. New programming languages were easier for writing of the application software that was used in all spheres of society.computers

Fifth Generation (1990) was based on the construction of a parallel architecture that allowed simultaneous operation of multiple computers (CPUs) to solve a specific task.

The sixth generation of computers (neuro computers) is characterized by the development of neural networks that are supposed to simultaneously handle a large amount of information using thousands of the process, that remind of humankind’s brain and its network.

Pros and cons of computer use

Pros and cons of computer use

The last few years, computers have reached its revolution, and there is no household on the planet that doesn’t have at least one computer. In the U.S nearly 70% of homes has internet access. With their revolutionary use, computers have a lot of benefits, but also some downsides.

Entertaining purpose

With all multimedia access, computers are practically an inexhaustible source of entertainment. Users have the opportunity to listen to music, watch movies, play games, browse the web and use social networks and stay in contact with their friends and all that at the comfort of their home. They can lay in affordable bedroom furniture set and enjoy on computers all day. With the development of new technologies, who knows what will yet be discovered.

Education

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When they are combined with studying, a computer can be beneficial, inside of the classroom or at home. Teachers use computers in everyday practice so that they could provide more visual experience to the students. The student has the opportunity to learn how new software work and this new entertaining method of learning is more appealing to the students, and they learn through entertainment and fun. They can use the internet assistance for any issues they may encounter.

They facilitate our life

Female Office workerWe would be crazy to think that computers are bad for us. Since the invention of computers, our lives have become much easier. We can do business, make payments, communicate with distant relatives, educate ourselves. Computers have become an integral part of our lives, and we come to the point where we can’t live without them because we became so accustomed to them.

In every good side, there is always a bad side; same goes for computers.

Health issues

childhood-obesity-health-issues-heart-problemsLong – term exposure to the computers can result in many bad side effect to your whole body. You can experience wrist and finger pains if you spend years typing in front of the computers. Others may develop back, spine or neck pain. Sitting is the biggest problem, that’ why many companies organized standing spots and their employees have the opportunity to work in standing position after some time. Some users may experience problems with sight and blurred vision; headaches are a common thing. If you feel any these pressures, take a break, your health is the most important thing in the world.

Computers can be potentially dangerous

Nowadays every computer is connected to the internet and every user can have potential safety issues. Viruses, malware and other types of problems, where their classified data can be exposed. Computers and the internet can be a really big threat to young children; there are many predators who prey on their innocence, and this is a whole new class of cyber criminal and children pornography. Parents should be careful when allowing children to use computers, they should be under constant supervision, at least until they get a little older and become more aware of the modern world.

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